Project Profile-SCHEME ON ACID SLURRY


INTRODUCTION:

This project profile in detail foresees setting up of unit to produce ACID SLURRY

        LAS have been the major surfactant used in detergents for more than thirty years and continues to represent a substantial portion of the surfactants market today. Supporting this history of safe usage is a large archive of environmental research that has been conducted on LAS. This environmental research, performed by top environmental scientists and research agencies, has investigated virtually every part of the environment that could have been exposed to LAS. The studies have repeatedly proven LAS's environmental acceptability and safety.

         Because of LAS's environmental safety, cleaning effectiveness and cost competitiveness, LAS has experienced 30 years of ever-increasing use around the world.

         Linear alkyl benzene (LAB), the material used to produce LAS, is derived exclusively from petroleum bi-products--benzene and paraffin derived from kerosene. LAB currently represents one-third of the active ingredients in detergents worldwide.

         Linear alkyl benzene is the raw material used to manufacture linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), an active ingredient in the formulation of detergents. LAS eliminate dirt by its physicochemical mechanism and it is one of the surfactants most widely used in liquid cleaners and in powder. LAS have been used for more than 25 years in the manufacture of detergents and it is known for its excellent quality/price ratio.

BASIS AND PRESUMPTIONS: -

1. Single shift of 8 hours a day, 25 days a month and 300 days in a year is presumed. Efficient machines and workers are also presumed.

2. Minimum 2 year period is considered for achieving full capacity utilization

3. Labour rates are as per the prevailing rates.

4. An average interest rate of 14% is considered.

5. The estimates are drawn for a production capacity generally considered techno-economically viable for model type of manufacturing activity.

6. The information supplied is based on a standard type of manufacturing activity viable for model type of manufacturing activity.

7. The information supplied is based on a standard type of manufacturing activity utilizing conventional techniques of production at optimum level of performance.

8. Costs in machinery and equipment, raw materials and the selling prices of the finished products etc., are generally prevailing at the time of preparation of the project profiles and may vary depending upon various factors.

9. Whereas some names of manufacturers, suppliers of machinery and equipment, raw materials etc. are indicated at the end of the profile, those are by no means exclusive or exhaustive.

IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE: -

         Normally eighteen months are required for the complete implementation of the project, including machinery erection, raw materials procurement etc.

Nature of Activity
Period in Month(Estimated)
   
Preparation of project report and approval
1
SSI registration
1
Sanction of Loan
2
Placement of order of delivery of machine
3
Installation of machine
3
Power connection
1
Trial run
2
Commencement of production
5

Acid Slurry: -

Active Matter As Alkyl BenzeneSulphonic Acid,Percent By Mass , Min 88 + 1%
Free Alkyle Benzene, Percent By Mass, Max 1-2 %
Free Sulphuric Acid, Percent By Mass, Max 5 - 6 %
Moisture 3 - 4 %
Formula Ch3(Ch2)11c6h4so3h
Mol Wt. 326.49
Toxicity Oral Rat Ld50: 650 Mg/Kg
Derivation Linear Alkylbenzene, S
Classification Anionic Surfactant
Physical State Brown Liquid
Melting Point 10 C
Boiling Point 315 C
Specific Gravity 1.2
Solubility In Water Partially Soluble
NFPA Ratings Health: 2 ; Flammability: 0; Reactivity : 0
Flash Point 149 C
Stability Stable Under Ordinary Conditions

QUALITY AND STANDARDS: -

         IS 8401: 1987

PRODUCTION TARGET: -

         Acid slurry- ½ MT per day/ shift or 150 TPA

TECHNICAL ASPECTS: -

         Raw material consumption per tones of 85-88% acid slurry is Linear alkyl benzene 700-750 kg, Sulphonating agent 20% oleum 800-900 kg, 98% sulphuric acid 1100-1200kg.
         LAS are anionic surfactants with molecules characterized by a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic group. Alpha-olefin sulfonates (AOS) alkyl sulfates (AS) are also examples of commercial anionic surfactants.
They are nonvolatile compounds produced by sulfonation.
         LAS are complex mixtures of homologues of different alkyl chain lengths (C10 to C13 or C14) and phenyl positional isomers of 2 to 5-phenyl in proportions dictated by the starting materials and reaction conditions, each containing an aromatic ring sulfonated at the Para position and attached to a linear alkyl chain at any position with the exception of terminal one (1-phenyl).
         The properties of LAS differ in physical and chemical properties according to the alkyl chain length, resulting in formulations for various applications.
         The starting material LAB (linear alkyl benzene) is produced by the alkylation of benzene with n-paraffins in the presence of hydrogen fluoride (HF) or aluminium chloride (AlCl3) as a catalyst. LAS are produced by the sulfonation of LAB with oleum in batch reactors.
         Other sulfonation alternative reagents are sulfuric acid, diluted sulfur trioxide, chlorosulfonic acid and sulfamic acid on falling film reactors.
         LAS are then neutralized to the desired salt (sodium, ammonium, calcium, potassium, and triethanolamine salts).
Surfactants are widely used in the industry needed to improve contact between polar and non-polar media such as between oil and water or between water and minerals.
         Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid is mainly used to produce household detergents including laundry powders, laundry liquids, dishwashing liquids and other household cleaners as well as in numerous industrial applications like as a coupling agent and as an emulsifier for agricultural herbicides and in emulsion polymerization.


         Because they are stable, sulfonic acids can be isolated, stored and shipped as an article of commerce.
         SO3 is an aggressive electrophilic reagent that rapidly reacts with any organic compound containing an electron donor group.
         Sulfonation is a difficult reaction to perform on an industrial scale because the reaction is rapid and highly exothermic; releasing approximately 380 kJ/kg SO3 (800 BTUs per pound of SO3) reacted.
         Most organic compounds form a black char on contact with pure SO3 due to the rapid reaction and heat evolution.
         Additionally, the reactants increase in viscosity between 15 and 300 times as they are converted from the organic feedstock to the sulfonic acid.
         This large increase in viscosity makes heat removal difficult. The high viscosity of the formed products reduces the heat transfer coefficient from the reaction mass.
         Effective cooling of the reaction mass is essential because high temperatures promote side reactions that produce undesirable by-products.
         Also, precise control of the molar ratio of SO3 to organic is essential because any excess SO3, due to its reactive nature, contributes to side reactions and by-product formation.
         Therefore, commercial scale sulfonation reactions require special equipment and instrumentation that allows tight control of the mole ratio of SO3 to organic and rapid removal of the heat of reaction.
         Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and oleum (SO3 ??H2SO4) are widely used as sulfonating agents.
         Oleum is used to sulfonate alkyl benzene and sulfate fatty alcohols for heavy duty detergents.
         It is an equilibrium process, as water is formed in the reaction and the resultant water dilutes the oleum and/or sulfuric acid.
         The sulfonation reaction stops when the sulfuric acid concentration drops to approximately 90%.
         Oleum sulfonation can be operated as either a batch or continuous process. This process has the dual advantage of low SO3 cost and low capital equipment cost.
         However, it has the disadvantage of being an equilibrium process which leaves large quantities of un-reacted sulfuric acid. This waste acid must be separated from the reaction mixture and subsequently disposed.

         Oleum and sulfuric acid can be used to sulfonate aromatics and alcohols in either batch or continuous equipment.
         For detergent alkylates, the batch equipment is used which is a stirred, sealed, glass lined or stainless steel kettle with a provision for heating and cooling.
         The detergent alkylate is first added to the reaction vessel then the oleum is slowly added over a period of several hours.
         The reaction is highly exothermic and the oleum addition rate is determined by the ability to remove the heat of reaction.
         The temperature should be maintained below 35°C for optimum product quality.
         Frequently the heat of reaction is removed by pumping the reaction mixture through an external heat exchanger.
         Because it is an equilibrium reaction, except for the special case of azeotropic sulfonation of hydrotropes with sulfuric acid, a large surplus of sulfuric acid forms.
         When the sulfonation reaction is complete,the sulfuric acid may be separated from the sulfonated detergent alkylate by adding water.
         The water addition (typically about 10% by weight of the reaction mixture) causes a phase separation to occur between the sulfonic acid and the diluted sulfuric acid.
         The separation usually takes place in a separate, glass lined vessel and occurs over a period of about for 10 hours.
         After separation, the sulfonic acid may be neutralized with aqueous sodium hydroxide, usually in a separate neutralization vessel.
         Including neutralization, total batch time is 15 to 20 hours.
         The product contains about 15% sodium sulfate after neutralization if the acid is separated, and about 60% sodium sulfate if not. Without separation, the product's application is limited to low active, traditional detergent powders where the large content of sodium sulfate is used as a filler.

Sulphonator:

         Several types of commercial sulfonators are available.
         Film reactors are the most common in detergent processing for consumer products, especially to produce cosmetic quality materials from oleo chemical feed stocks.
         In a film reactor, the organic feedstock is extruded onto the wall of the reactor (reaction surface) as a continuous film.
         Organic feed rate to the reactor vessel is measured by a highly accurate mass flow meter and controlled by a variable speed driven gear pump.
         The proper organic feed rate is based on the preset sulfur-to-organic mole ratio. The SO3, diluted with very dry air, flows over the film of organic material.
         The SO3 diffuses into the organic film and reacts to form a sulfonic acid.
         In almost all commercial reactors both the organic and SO3 flow concurrently from the top of the reactor to the bottom.
         The heat of reaction is removed by cooling water, which flows through cooling jackets underneath the reaction surface of the reactor. Cooling jackets on the reactor remove most of the heat of reaction.
         The product exiting the reactor is instantly quench cooled by removing the acid, pumping it through a heat exchanger to cool, then returning it to the bottom of the reactor.
         This cooling process reduces the time that the sulfonic acid is held at an elevated temperature and results in better product quality.

FINANCIAL ASPECTS: -

         A. Fixed Capital: -

CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS

SI. No.
Capital Requirements
Rs.
1.
Land and building Land 1000 sq.m. Building-350 sq.m
1,00,000
2.
Factory shed including laboratory/ water arrangements etc.
2,00,000
3.
Store/Go down
 
4.
Office
3,00,000
  Total
6,00,000

PLANT AND MACHINERY: -

1.
Sulphonator: Stainless steel vertical and cylindrical vessel fitted within agitator with MS jacket and complete motor, Cap 1 m³  
2,50,000
2.
Chilling plant  
2,00,000
3.
Settling tank-MS vertical dished bottom, lead line with agitator and motor Cap 3.5 m³  
1,50,000
4.
LAB feed tank: vertical cylindrical tank , MS Cap. 1 m³  
25,000
5.
Oleum/Acid slurry feed tank vertical cylindrical Tank Cap 2.5 m³  
25,000
6.
LAB main storage tank horizontal cylindrical tank Cap 2.5 m³  
75,000
7.
Oleum/Acid slurry feed tank horizontal cylindrical Tank Cap 2.5 m³  
35,000
8.
Pumps barrel type with motor  
35,000
9.
Misc.equipment including valvers pipelines, exhaust, weighing machines etc. and laboratory equipment  
75,000
10.
Office furniture & equipments  
30,000
11
Installation/electrification  
6,000
Total  
3,06,000/-

Fixed Capital = 6, 00,000 + 3, 06,000

                     = 9, 06,000/-

(a) Raw Materials Required (Monthly)

SI.No.
Raw material (for 12.5MT)
Quantity in Kg.
Rs/MT
Value
1.
Linear alkyl benzene
9 MT
40,000
3,60,000
2.
Sulphuric acid 98% and oleum
14 MT
6,000
84,000
  Total
 
 
4,44,000

(b) Man Power (Monthly)

1.
Manager / Chemist
1 No.
6,000/-
2.
Plant Operator
2 No.
5,000/-
3.
Un-skilled Workers
2 No.
3,000/-
4.
Store Keeper – Cum- Clerk
1 No.
3,000/-
5.
Watchman cum Peon
2 No.
4,000/-
 
Total
 
21,000/-
 
Add 15% perks
 
3,150/-
 
Total
 
24,150/-

(c) Utilities (Monthly)

1.
Electricity
5,000/-
2.
Water
5,000/-
 
Total
10,000/-

(d) Other Expenditure (Monthly)


1.
Postage and stationery
1,000/-
2.
Telephone
1,000/-
3.
Traveling
3,500/-
4.
Transportation
2,000/-
5.
Insurance, Raw Materials and Machinery’s
2,000/-
6.
Repair & Maintenance
2,000/-
7.
Other misc. expenses
1,500/-
 
Total
13,000/-

 

Total of        (a) + (b) + (c) + (d)  
Say        444000+24150+10000+13000
4,91,150/-

TOTAL INVESTMENT

1. Plant & Machinery
9,06,000/-
2. Working Capital (for 3 months)
14,73,450/-
  Total
23,79,456/-

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

1.
Cost of Production per Annum
 
A.
Total cost of Raw materials
53,28,000/-
B.
Total cost of staff & labour
2,89,800/-
C.
Total cost of power
1,20,000/-
D.
Total cost of other expenses
1,56,000/-
E.
Interest on capital @ 14% on 2379450
3,33,123/-
F.
Depreciation on Machinery and Equipments @ 10% on 306000
30,600/-
 
Total
62,57,523/-

2. Total sale of 150MTs of acid slurry @45,000/MT                                           6750000/-

3. Profit per year

Sales per year - Cost of Production per year

              6750000 - 6257523                                  = 492477/-

4. Net profit Ratio on sales

Profit ( per year) x 100 / Sales (per Year) = 492477 X 100 / 6750000           = 11.1 %                

5. Rate of Return

Profit ( per year) x 100 / Total capital int.per year =   492477 x 100 /2379450 = 20.69%         

BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS: -

Fixed cost per annum

1. Interest on capital investment -        333123
2. Depreciation -                                30600
3. 40% of salaries and wages -           115920
4. 40% of other expenses-                  62400
Total-------------------------------          208920

B.E.P = Fixed Cost x 100 / Fixed cost + Profit

         208920 X 100 / 208920 + 492477 = 29.8 %

SUPPLIERS OF MACHINERY: -

         M/S. Mazz India (P) Ltd.
         C/o.K.S.Krishnan and Associates
         15, Community Centre,
         East of Kailash
         New delhi-110024

         M/s Pioneer Engg Co.
         57, Bombay Samachar Marg,
         Fort, Mumbai-23

         M/s. Precision Machanist
         36 (D) Kandivili Indl.Estate,
         Kandivili (W)
         Mumbai-67

         Ms.Sethi Engg. Works
         31-A G.T Road, Indl.Area
         Delhi-110033

ADDRESS OF RAW MATERIAL DISTRIBUTORS

         M/s. IPCL
         Petrochemicals P: O,
         Vadodara
         Gujarat-391346

         M/s. Tamilnadu Petro products Ltd.
         Manali, Tamil nadu

         M/s. Reliance Industries Ltd.
         Patalganga, Maharashtra

         M/s. Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Limited
         317/21, Dr.D.N.Road
         Fort, Mumbai-1