RESOURCES

Human Resources

Population

The population (Provisional Population) as per the census 2001 was 28.33 lakhs, constituting 4.56 % of the state population. It shows a growth rate of 16.66 % over the 1991 census population. The district ranked 7th in the state in terms of population size. Population density was 294 per Sq. Km, which is far below the State average of 478. Male population constituted 51.61%.

Table No 3.1
Demographic profile of Dharmapuri District Vis-ŗ-vis State ( Census-2001 )

Attribute Dharmapuri district State
Population
Population density (Per Sq. Km.)
Male Population
Female population
Worker participation rate
(1991 Census)
Literacy rate
Sex ratio
28.33 lakhs
294
14.62 lakhs
13.71 lakhs

48 %
59.23%
938
621.11 lakhs
478
312.69 lakhs
308.42 lakhs

43.31%
73.47%
986

  • The district ranks 7th in the state in terms of population size.


  • It has the 4th lowest population density in the state after Sivaganga, Perambalur and Salem districts.


  • It has the 2nd lowest sex ratio in the state after Salem district.


Literacy

Table No 3.2
Literacy rate in Dharmapuri District Vis-ŗ-vis State
  Dharmapuri State
Literary rate 59.23 % 73.47 %
Male literacy 68.82 % 82.33 %
Female literacy 49.10 % 64.55 %

The district has the lowest literacy rate in the state. Incidentally, the same was the status during the 1991 census. Low literacy, among the men as well as women, has resulted in over dependence on agriculture for employment. This is one among the reasons for the economic backwardness of the district.

The district has 9 polytechnics/ITIs and 4 engineering colleges and so there is no dearth of technical manpower.

Occupational Pattern

According to the 1991 census, nearly 48 % of the district population constituted the workforce. Nearly 74 % of the main workers were dependant on agriculture. The results of 2001 census, which is expected shortly may through more light on the present position. Following table shows the occupational pattern of workforce prevalent during the census 1991

Table No3.3
Occupational Pattern


Srl. No. Category % of Labour Employed
1 Cultivators 43 %
2 Agricultural labourers 31 %
3 Household Industry workers 1 %
4 Other industrial workers & Service sector workers 18 %
5 Marginal workers 7 %
  Total 100 %

Source : Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Chennai.

Material Resources

Agriculture


Agriculture The district economy is mainly agrarian in nature. Except for the Hosur block the dependence on agriculture is conspicuous. Nearly 74 % of the workforce is dependant on agriculture and allied activities. The district is one among most backward and drought prone area in the state. Land brought under cultivation was 3.93 lakh hectares constituting 40.7 % against the state share of 59.2 %. The district constituted the main horticultural belt in the state. It accounts for 12 % of the area under horticulture in Tamilnadu.

Land use pattern

The district accounted for 7.4 % of the geographical area of the state. Of the total 9.62 lakh hectares of land, nearly 38 % is occupied by forest and the net sown area accounted for 40.7 %. Following table shows the land use pattern in the district during 1999-2000.

Table No. 3.4
Land Utilisation pattern in the district in 1999-2000
(Area in Hectares)

Land Classification Area (in Hectares) % to total area
Geographical area 9,64,103 X
Forest 3,66,226 38.0
Barren & uncultivable land 42,846 4.4
Land put to non-agri. Use 50,778 5.3
Culturable waste 14,232 1.5
Permanent pastures and Other Grazing lands 13,668 1.4
Land under Miscellaneous tree crop & groves (not included in Net Area Sown) 6,033 0.6
Current fallow 66,073 6.9
Other fallow land 11,589 1.2
Net area sown 3,92,658 40.7
Area sown more than once 52,450 X
Gross cropped area 4,55,642 X



Source: Season and Crop Report of Tamilnadu, Dept of Statistics, Chennai

Agriculture Cropping Pattern

Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in this district. Nearly 3.92 lakh hectares constituting 41 % of the geographical area has been brought under cultivation. Gross cropped area is 4.56 lakh hectares. Paddy, Groundnut, sugarcane, cotton, pulses and coconut are the major corps cultivated. The district is known for its coarse cereals and millets like ragi and samai.

Also, the district is the horticulture belt in the state. It is famous for mango. Area under horticulture in the district accounted for 13 % of the geographical area against the average area of 8 % in the state.

TABLE No.3.5
AREA UNDER DIFFERENT PRODUCT GROUPS DURING1999-00


Major Product Group Area In Dharmapuri (In Hectares) % To Gross Cropped Area Area In Tamilnadu % To Total Area In The State
Food crops
1. Cereals

1,61,245

34.33

29,40,222

45.10
2. Pulses 92,758 19.75 6,92,539 10.62
3. Condiments & Spices 7,201 1.53 1,81,588 2.79
4. Sugar crop 24,126 5.14 3,31,748 5.09
5. Fruits & Vegetables 62,098 13.22 5,11,610 7.85
Total 3,47,428 73.97 46,57,707 71.45
Non Food Crop
1. Fibre crop

13,521

2.88

1,81,790

2.79
2. Oil Seeds 95,753 20.39 12,22,941 18.76
3. Other Non food Crop 12,986 2.76 4,56,671 7.00
Total 1,22,260 26.03 18,61,402 28.55
Gross Cultivated Area 4,69,688 100.00 65,19,109 100

Source: Season & Crop Report of Tamilnadu, Dept of Statistics, Chennai



  • The district has the highest area under fruits and vegetable.


  • The district has the 4th highest area under cereals in the state.


  • It has the highest area under pulses.


  • It accounted for the 3rd largest area under edible oil seeds in the state.
Area and Yield of Major Crops:

Following table shows the normal area under select crops as well as the area and yield during the year 1999-2000 in comparison with the state.

Table No 3.6
Area and yield of select crop during the year 1999-2000

Name of Crop Normal Area (in Hectares) Normal Production (in Tonnes) Area during 1999-00 (in Hectares) Total Production (In Tonnes) Average Yield per Hectares (In Tonnes)
  Dípuri State Dípuri State Dípuri State Dípuri State Dípuri State
Rice 57,792 22,41,679 1,98,994 69,67,204 54,875 21,63,558 2,00,570 75,32,100 3.655 3.481
Jowar 22,865 3,92,909 36,074 373,488 15,115 3,51,290 26,970 3,45,820 1.784 0.984
Cumbu 3,155 1,68,401 6,248 2,12,412 3,736 1,57,772 7.230 2,41,490 1.938 1.531
Ragi 59,348 1,17,382 1,10,240 2,24,818 64,598 1,22,715 1,30,080 2,45,940 2.014 2.004
Samai 26,737 45,429 21,246 36,036 21,889 36,299 13,960 26,580 0.638 0.732
Bengalgram 321 8,257 62 5,284 540 7,825 50 4,950 0.091 0.633
Greengram 1,680 1,18,249 922 51,834 2,438 1,29,301 1,140 60,350 0.467 0.467
Blackgram 3,031 2,32,842 1,488 99,215 4,857 2,70,180 1,890 1,05,120 0.389 0.389
Redgram 10,516 79,657 6,692 40,630 10,468 64,947 6,430 43,330 0.614 0.667
Horsegram 43,353 89,151 19,860 40,045 54,573 1,04,092 3,010 53,350 0.525 0.513
Mochai N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. 12,638 25,382 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
Groundnut 73,033 8,97,644 1,16,602 14,50,924 64,649 7,59,309 87,080 13,18,220 1.347 1.736
Gingelly 1,817 1,04,788 892 49,288 3,804 1,12,025 1,990 66,020 0.525 0.589
Sunflower 1,933 18,547 1,746 19,202 2,528 12,500 2,170 14,270 0.858 1.142
Castor 3,271 30,683 1,120 9,475 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
Sugarcane 18,804 3,08,484 16,84,286 330,36,622 23,922 3,16,440 20,87,100 344,64,110 87 109
Cotton (170 kg bales) 21,786 2,35,453 41,610 354,148 13,304 1,78,325 31,560 3,39,520 0.403 0.324
Coconut         20,472 3,04,028 3,741 lakh nuts 32,220 lakh nuts 18,272 nuts 10,204 nuts

Source: Season and Crop Report of Tamilnadu, Dept of Economics and Statistics

The following points worth a mention here, while discussing the cropping pattern in the district during 1999--2000.

  • Dharmapuri district accounted for the major share of coarse cereals/millets and pulses like ragi, samai, horse gram, mochai and red gram.


  • The district accounted for nearly 53 % of the area and out tern of ragi in the state.


  • It accounted for 60.3 % of the area and 52.5 % of the total output of samai in the state.


  • It has 5.1% of area under Jowar but accounted for 12.48 % of the output.


  • It accounted for 16 % of the area (second highest area) and 15 % of the yield of red gram in the state.


  • It also constituted the major horse gram area in the state with 52.4 % of the area and 53.7 % of the yield.


  • Also, the district accounted for 49.8% of the area under mochai.


  • The district contributed 14.5 % of pulses produced in the state and stood second in terms of output.


  • It has the lowest average yield of Bengal gram in the state.


  • It accounted for 9 % of the cotton output in the state and stood 3rd in terms of total production after Perambalur and Virudhunagar districts.


  • It accounted for 15.77 % of the tapioca produced in the state.


  • It has the near monopoly of suntemp fibre with 99 % of the area under the crop in the state.


  • The district accounted for the highest area under edible oils seeds like mustard (78.6 %) and sunflower (20 %). In terms of out-turn it stands first in mustard seed (76.9 %) and third in sunflower (15 %) and caster (13 %).


  • It has the highest area, accounting for 60 % of the state area, under niger seeds.
Size of land holdings

The operational land holding is relatively high in this district. The average holding is 1.12 hectares against the state average of 0.96 hectares. Information on land holding is given below:

No. of Holdings : 4,42,064
Area in Hectares : 4,96,408
Average size of holding (in hectares) : 1.12

Agricultural Marketing

There are 16 regulated markets in the district. They have handled 25,688 tonnes of commodities and transacted business worth 147.02 lakhs during 1998-99. Farmers Markets (Ulzhavar Shandies ) have also been opened in Hosur, Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri for the convenience of the farmers to directly sell their products to the consumers.

Irrigation

Nearly 35.3 % of the net sown area is irrigated against the State level of 53.62%. Wells forms the major sources of irrigation followed by tanks.

Thenpennar and its tributaries like Vaniar and Markandanathi irrigates part of the area in the district. The Krishnagiri reservoir is constructed across Thenpennar. Though River Cauvery passes through the district for 67 Kms, it does not aid the district in irrigation.

The following table gives the extent of irrigation through various sources in the district.

Table No 3.7
Area Irrigated through different sources (1999-00)

Sl.No. Source Net area irrigated (in hectares) % to total
1
2
3
4
Canals
Tanks
Tube Wells
Wells
Others
5,693
16,475
89
114716
1724
4.1
11.9
0.1
82.7
1.2
  Total 1,38,697 100.00


Horticulture

Dharmapuri district forms a major horticultural belt in the state. It possesses nearly 12 % of the horticulture area in the state. Area under horticulture in the district accounted for 13 % of the gross sown area. As the area is drought-prone, it has become essential to switch over to cultivation of drought tolerant perennial fruit crops in this district.

Area under horticulture in the district is 79 thousand hectares. Out of this fruits accounted for 39 to 40 thousand hectares., vegetables 28.8 thousand hectares, spices and condiments another 7.87 thousand hectares and flowers accounted for 1900 hectares.

Mango is the main horticulture crop, which is grown in about 36.6 thousand hectares. It has the highest area under the crop. The district accounts for nearly one-third area under mango and nearly one-half of the mango yield in the state.

Following table No 3.6 shows the area, total yield and average yield of select horticultural products in the district.

TABLE No.3.8
Area and yield of select horticultural crop during 1999-00

Name of Crop Area under the crop (in Hectares) Total Production (In Tonnes) Yield per hectare (in Tonnes)
  Dípuri TamilNadu Dípuri TamilNadu Dípuri TamilNadu
banana 1,362 85,122 50,120 31,32,240 36.797 36.797
Mango 36,647 1,04,301 1,37,490 3,13,990 3.752 3.010
Guava 410 9,369 1,390 31,700 3.383 3.383
Tapioca 11,938 85,322 4,23,290 32,66,410 35.457 38.283
Chilly 926 86,315 1,200 55,940 1.302 0.648
Onion 818 35,280 7,310 3,15,080 8.931 8.931
Turmeric 3,179 32,511 12,310 1,67,380 3.872 5.148
Tamarind 2,272 20,497 8,180 65,060 3.601 3.107
Tomato 6,081 29,725 86,150 3,42,210 14,167 11,512
Grape 173 2,143 3,900 40,980 22.536 19.124
Papaya 43 195 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
Total Vegetable 22,979 2,01,810 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.
Total Veg & Fruits 79119 3,09,800 N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A.

Source: Season and Crop Report of Tamilnadu, Dept of Economics and Statistics, 1998

  • Almost all types of fruits and vegetable are cultivated in Dharmapuri district. The district accounted for 12 % of vegetable area and 12.6% of fruit area in the state during 1999-2000.


  • Dharmapuri district is very famous for mango. It has the highest area and yield accounting for 35 % of the area and 43.8 % of the out turn. Nearly 80 % of the products are of Thottapuri variety (Banglora), commonly referred as Keelimukku. Krishnagiri, Pochampalli & Uthangarai are the main places where mango plantations are concentrated.


  • Grape is another important fruit crop. The district is in 4th position in terms of area under grape. But it has the highest yield. It is mainly cultivated at Hosur, Pochampalli and Denkanikottai.


  • It has the 3rd highest area under chikku with yield rate of nearly two times that of the state average.


  • The district has the 2nd highest area under tomato and accounted for 22 % of the area in the state and 25 % of its output. Palacode, Hosur, Krishnagiri and Denkanikottai are the main area where tomato is cultivated.


  • The district also accounted for 22 % of the area under Papaya (Second highest area after Coimbatore district)


  • It has the highest area under mint in the state accounting for 53 %.


  • It also accounted for 12.6 % of the tamarind produced in the state. Tamarind is mainly available in Krishnagiri, Hosur & Denkanikottai.


  • Chilli is cultivated mainly at Denkanikottai, Krishnagiri & Pennagaram.
Floriculture

Dharmapuri is one among the districts that have sizable area under floriculture. The normal area under floriculture is 1600 hectares, which constitutes nearly 10 % of the floriculture area in the state. Jasmine, Mullai, Rose, Crossadra, Chrysanthemum, Marigold are the flowers mainly cultivated here. During the year 1999-00 area under floriculture has increased to 1,902 hectares. Almost all blocks have sizeable area under floriculture. Kaveripattinam and Kelamangalam blocks alone accounted for over 25 % of the floriculture area in the district. Average yield is around 5 tonnes per hectare.

Following table shows the area under different flowers during 1999-2000.

Table No. 3.9
Area under different flowers in Dharmapuri district during 1999-2000


Name of the Flower Area in Dharmapuri
(Area in Hec.)
Rose 232
Jasmine 590
Mullai 122
Jadhi Malli 65
Crossadra 343
Chrysanthemum 310
Chevanthi 60
Arali 30
Marigold 119
MariKolundhu 31
Total Flowers 1902

Source: Asst. Director of Horticulture, Dharmapuri

13 major floriculture farms are located in Hosur & Denkanikottai taluks of the district.

The State Government is setting up a Floriculture Infrastructure Park near Hosur with private equity participation with the aim of promoting hi-tech export oriented units of floriculture, Fruits and vegetables. The park will provide services like Green house, central packing house, market information & marketing assistance, cold storage facility, laboratory facility, R & D centre, training centre, etc. The Park will promote more floriculture and horticulture activity in and around Hosur.

Sericulture

Sericulture plays an important role in the economy of Dharmapuri District. The District ranks first in the state in cultivation of mulberry and production of Cocoons. Area under Mulberry during 2000-01 was 16,154.60 acres accounting for over 75 % state area under mulberry and cocoon production stood at 36.03 tonnes valued at Rs.4229.92 lakhs.

Mulberry is cultivated in all the 18 blocks of the district. Yet, Shoolagiri, Hosur, Pennagaram, Kelamangalam, Veppanapalli and Thally blocks together account for over 75% of the total area under mulberry. Block-wise area under mulberry and production of cocoons are furnished in the following table.

Table No. 3.10
AREA UNDER MULBERRY & COCOON PRODUCTION DURING 2000 -01

S.No. Name of the Block Area under Mulberry Acres Production of Cocoons (in tonnes) Value (Rs. in lakhs)
1 Dharmapuri 694.95 1.296 144.415
2 Nallampalli 307.10 0.260 30.903
3 Harur 125.75 0.075 8.431
4 Morappur 228.70 0.219 24.711
5 Pappireddipatti 158.90 0.075 8.629
6 Pennagaram 2320.70 4.242 530.250
7 Palacode 969.20 1.532 191.500
8 Kelamangalam 1564.95 3.550 439.800
9 Thally 1179.50 1.880 225.600
10 Hosur 2754.50 7.966 943.174
11 Shoolagiri 2992.25 8.721 1032.566
12 Veppanapalli 1386.75 3.768 444.620
13 Krishnagiri 284.90 0.640 75.500
14 Bargur 518.10 0.896 105.730
15 Kaveripattinam 447.85 0.752 88.740
16 Karimangalam 121.85 0.053 6.250
17 Mathur 50.40 0.061 7.230
18 Uthangarai 48.25 0.060 7.050
  Total 16154.60 36.046 4315.199

Source: Asst. Director of Sericulture, Dharmapuri

Area under mulberry, which stood at 21554.95 acres during 1996-97 had declined to the present level due to lower prices realised for cocoons by the farmers. The farmers had switched over to other crops. The import of Chinese silk had also contributed to lower prices for the domestic product.

Following table shows the production of cocoons and silk yarn over the years in Dharmapuri District.

Table No 3.11
PRODUCTION OF COCOONS & SILK YARN OVER THE YEARS IN DHARMAPURI DISTRICT

S.No. Year Area under Mulberry
(in Acres)
Cocoon Production No. of Silk Reeling Units Production of Silk Yarn (in Tonnes)
      Qty (in tonnes) Value
(in Lakhs)
  Qty (in tonnes) Value (in Lakhs)
1 1994-95 17785.50 43,512 4159.74 155 1,155 1201.20
2 1995-96 21128.75 57,228 5991.77 191 1,683 1918.62
3 1996-97 21554.95 48,281 5226.42 196 1,517 1788.54
4 1997-98 13057.90 38,720 3949.44 156 1695 1881.45
5 1998-99 14369.75 40,430 4507.95 174 1,443 1751.80
6 1999-00 15467.20 38,310 4022.55 154 1,669 1994.45
7 2000-01 16154.60 36,030 4229.92 183 1,950 2515.50

Source : Assistant Director of Sericulture, Dharmapuri.

Though this district is producing considerable quantity of silk yarn, there is no silk weaving centre in this district. The silk yarn produced is marketed mainly at Kancheepuram. There is ample scope for accelerating sericulture activity in the district by bringing more area under mulberry cultivation through concerted efforts. Silk weaving centres can also be started in the district.

Fisheries

Dharmapuri being an inland district, fishing is restricted to inland fishing only here. Total inland fresh water spread area is 1628 acres. Main varieties of fish available are katla, rogu, mirgal, common and corp. Total fish catch in 1999-2000 was estimated at 5592 tonnes valued at Rs.283.702 lakhs.

Main fishing centres are Bargur, Krishnagiri and Shoolagiri.

Animal Husbandry

The district has a sizeable high bovine population and poultry.
Following table gives the population of livestock and poultry in 1999-00.

Table No.3.12
Livestock population as on 31.3.2001

S.No. Livestock Population as on
    31.3.2001 31.3.1996
1 Cattle 2,92,503 5,26,463
2 Buffaloes 1,06,112 1,36,332
3 Sheep 3,40,555 4,45,418
4 Goat 1,65,680 2,42,223
5 Poultry 3,18,593 16,20,536

Source: Asst. Director of Animal Husbandry, Dharmapuri.

There has been an abnormal reduction in the animal population during the last 5 years in the district. Still the district has potential for development of livestock-based industries like Dairy products and meat processing. Milk production in the district during 1999-00 was 347.27 lakh litres. Meat production was 461.7 Tonnes during the same period. The University of Animal Husbandry & Research Centre, located at Kumdalapatti in this district carries research on livestock. There is Cattle Farm at Hosur in this district.

Mineral Resources

Dharmapuri district is endowed with sizeable reserves of granite. High quality black granite is available at Pennagaram, Harur, and Palacode blocks. Grey granite is available at Krishnagiri and Pochampalli. Multi-colour granite is available at Denkanikottai.

Quartz is available at Pinnamangalam village of Denkanikottai taluk, Kendiganipalli village of Pennagaram taluk and A.Velampatti & Pethampatti of Harur Taluk.

Another high value mineral product available here is Maliptinum, which is identified as a good conductor. It is available in Harur. So far, it has not yet been mined. TAMIN has a proposal to explore the mineral.

The following table shows the quantity and value of various minerals extracted during 1998-99 in Dharmapuri District.

Table No. 13
Quantity and value of Minerals extracted during 1998-99

Name of the mineral Quantity (tonnes) Value (Rs. in lakhs)
White Clay
Quartz
Rough Stone or Jelly Sand
Colour Granite
Block Granite
295 Tonne
1,500 Tonne
43,350 Tonne
2,25,900 Tonne
28,734 CBM
4,301 CBM
38.25
195.00
6.07
29.37
401.95
103.91

Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Chennai.

There is high potential for starting mineral-based industries especially granite polishing in the district.